US presidential history is a case in point. Although there has long been an anti-aristocratic bent to politics, voters have put some famous aristocrats (including two Roosevelts, one Kennedy, all Harvard men) into the White House, and have all but idolised them as well.
Over the past 20 years, every American president has been a graduate of Yale. In 2004, two members of the university's rarefied secret society, Skull and Bones, ran against each other. The more elite candidate, Mr George W. Bush (Andover, Yale, Harvard Business School, son of a president), won.
But it's not always easy to say exactly who, or what, constitutes the elite - especially in recent decades. In his 1956 book, The Power Elite, the leftist thinker C. Wright Mills identified a class 'composed of political, economic and military men', who harnessed 'the major means of production' along with 'the newly enlarged means of violence' created in the nuclear age.
In 1975, the neoconservative Irving Kristol described the elite, or 'the new class', as he termed it, as a confederacy of like-minded liberals who were 'suspicious of, and hostile to, the market precisely because the market is so vulgarly democratic'.
Mills and Kristol shared the belief that 'the elite', however they were defined, wielded disproportionate influence. This year, these competing views remain in place. Republicans sneer at Democrats for being cultural elitists, and Democrats deride Republicans as economic elitists. But the old labels have been turned inside out.
Mrs Clinton and Mr McCain have derided Mr Obama as 'elitist' for his remarks about bitter rural voters who 'cling' to guns and religion. Amid all this, some have noted that we have reached a curious moment in our history: an African-American presidential candidate, born seven years after the Supreme Court repudiated segregation in public schools, finds himself struggling to overcome an aura of privilege.
'It really is a delicious irony that the first serious black candidate for president should suddenly be described as elite,' said Tom Wolfe, the author of Bonfire Of The Vanities and a chronicler of the nation's fixation on status.
A reason is that Mr Obama has two Ivy League degrees at a time when not all Americans accept the notion of such an education as a triumph of American opportunity. As elite campuses become more culturally diverse, but not necessarily more accessible to many in the middle class, the perception persists that high- powered ties still matter.
'Most people in America just don't buy into the idea of a meritocracy as defined by Ivy League meritocrats,' said Mr Nicholas Lemann, dean of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism and author of The Big Test, a history of the SAT and the rise of the American meritocracy.
'That's one reason why the average American buys the person who doesn't have fancy college credentials but who built a business from scratch, and who grew up poor,' he said.
In a nation without a titled aristocracy, an elite education may well be the most important membership card. 'American elites have a problem that the Europeans don't, which is how to ensure that their children and their children's children retain their elevated social position,' said Mr Jason Kaufman, a Harvard sociologist who has written on elites and American culture. 'Americans do this through cultural institutions and exclusion - art museums, classical music and tremendously elitist universities.'
There may be another reason Americans are sceptical about the idea that the best rise to the top: Those at the top haven't performed too well lately. Novelist and humorist Christopher Buckley, Yale 1975, notes that recent Iraq books contain echoes of The Best And The Brightest, David Halberstam's classic account of the huge failures of the Ivy League brain trust in the Kennedy White House who propelled the country into Vietnam.
'If you loved Vietnam, brought to you by Harvard and Yale, you'll love Iraq,' Buckley said.
Consider some crucial players in the Iraq war: former defence secretary Donald Rumsfeld, Princeton 1954; Vice-President Dick Cheney, Yale dropout; Lewis Libby, Yale 1972; and Paul Bremer III, Yale 1963, Harvard Business 1966. Mr Bush, Mr Bremer and Mr Libby also graduated from Andover.
Buckley recalled a famous line uttered by his father, William Buckley, Yale 1950, who observed once that he'd rather 'be governed by the first 2,000 names in the Boston telephone book than by the 2,000 members of the Harvard faculty'.
Ivy League credentials aside, what matters in the end to most voters, when it comes to choosing a president, is not academic pedigree, but rather the candidates' ability to make an emotional connection and to win trust and confidence. The most famous aristocrat-presidents of the 20th century, John Kennedy and Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt, all had that gift, and it outweighed the advantages - and drawbacks - of education, wealth and privilege.
This year's focus on the crucial swing states and their big working-class populations has made inspiring those voters and playing down elitist credentials a political necessity.
At the very least, Mrs Clinton's lopsided primary wins in West Virginia and Kentucky show how much work Mr Obama, the likely Democratic nominee, must do with this critical slice of the electorate.
'We believe in the best and the brightest, but you've also got to relate to ordinary people,' said Mr Ed Rollins. 'I think one of the problems that Obama has is that he gives a magnificent speech, he can inspire massive crowds, but he seems aloof up close.'
The lesson has not been lost on Mr McCain, whose third-generation Annapolis lineage makes him perhaps the most elite of the three candidates and who is married to a woman whose money financed his political career. In a speech last month in Inez, the Appalachian coal-mining hollow where in 1964 Lyndon Johnson declared his war on poverty, Mr McCain tried to bridge the difference.
'I cannot claim that the circumstances of our lives are similar in every respect,' he told a friendly crowd. 'I'm not the son of a coalminer. I wasn't raised by a family that made its living from the land or toiled in a mill or worked in the local schools or health clinic. I was raised in the United States Navy, and after my own naval career, I became a politician. My work isn't as hard as yours.'
Nonetheless, Mr McCain assured the crowd, 'you are my compatriots', and 'that means more to me than almost any other association'.
It was a peculiarly American sentiment - hopeful, political, perhaps na�ve. But it was as old as the nation itself.
'I am a living witness that any one of your children may look to come here as my father's child has,' Lincoln told Union troops at the White House in August 1864, before promising them all 'equal privileges in the race of life'.
NEW YORK TIMES
THE CULTURAL ROUTE
'American elites have a problem that the Europeans don't, which is how to ensure that their children and their children's children retain their elevated social position. Americans do this through cultural institutions and exclusion - art museums, classical music and tremendously elitist universities.'
MR JASON KAUFMAN, a Harvard sociologist who has written on elites and American culture.
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