JAKARTA - The Habibie Center, in collaboration with the Office of the Coordinating Human Development and Culture Minister, the Korea Trust Fund and the World Bank, released the Violence Intensity Index 2015 report on Thursday, revealing a change in the types of violence in Indonesia in the democracy consolidation era.
The Jakarta-based research institute said that the types of conflict with ideological roots found during the 1997-2004 democracy consolidation period, such as separatism and identity conflict, had decreased, with many previously troubled regions having reached conflict settlement.
It said that conflict and violence in Indonesia today were small-scale but spread across Indonesia's 34 provinces.
"Experts call it 'routine violence'. It has no explicit political motive like separatism and other kinds of motives to overthrow a regime," the institute said in a press release on Thursday.
The institute conducted its research through the National Violence Monitoring System (SNPK), focusing on violence throughout 2014.
The research revealed that among types of violence, namely violent crimes, violent conflicts, domestic violence and violence in law enforcement, resulted in the highest number of victims.
In 2004, out of 2,943 cases of violence recorded, violent crimes occupied the highest number with 1,727 incidents, followed by violent conflicts 587 incidents, domestic violence 442 cases, and violence in law enforcement 193 cases.
The Habibie Institute applies the Violence Intensity Index (IIK) when rating the level of violence in the 34 Indonesian provinces.
Among the 34 provinces rated, North Sulawesi, South Sumatra and Papua were the provinces with the highest IIK, with 19,72, 19,60 and 16,57 IIK, respectively.
Marwan Syaukani, deputy chief of the social conflict department at the Office of the Coordinating Human Development and Culture Minister, said that within the category of violent crimes, vigilantism had resulted in the highest number of victims.
"People become vigilant because they have lost faith in our [weak] law enforcement," he said, adding that this type of violence can only be settled through the display of fair law enforcement.
.A separatist movement in East Timor (now Timor Leste) emerged in 1997 leading to the separation of the 27th Indonesian province from Indonesia in 1999. Another two ethnic conflicts took place in Poso and Ambon in 1998 and 1999, respectively.
International human rights organisations have condemned Indonesia over the violent treatment of separatists by the Indonesian Military (TNI).