JAKARTA - The two major Muslim organisations were once key players in Indonesian politics.
Both Muhammadiyah, formed in 1912, and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), formed in 1926, took part in electoral politics from the 1950s to the 1990s. They did this either through a political party or directly as a political party.
But the two organisations, with a combined membership of 70 million, are taking a back seat in next month's parliamentary elections and July's presidential polls. They have declared they will not be involved in either.
However, analysts say it is difficult for the two to disengage themselves from politics because they are mass-based organisations with a large number of constituents who can be sources of support for political parties.
"We are politically neutral and we encourage our members to be leaders and cadres in this upcoming election," Muhammadiyah chairman Din Syamsuddin said in a statement. He added that members were free to be active in political parties and vote for whichever party they wished to.
A similar statement from NU, the larger of the two bodies, said although many of its members are spread among many political parties, "we want to remain neutral".
NU had operated as a political party in the 1950s, participating in the 1955 elections. Its political arm merged with other Islamic parties to form the United Development Party (PPP) in 1973. NU left the PPP in 1985 to return to its original roots as a social and religious organisation.
After the fall of strongman Suharto in 1998, then Muhammadiyah chairman Amien Rais set up National Mandate Party (PAN), while NU chairman Abdurrahman Wahid formed the National Awakening Party (PKB) as their respective political vehicles. Both are Islamic parties but their memberships are open to non-Muslims.
Muhammadiyah started cutting off links with PAN when Dr Din became chairman in 2005 and wanted the body to stay non-partisan. NU started to distance itself from PKB after it felt marginalised by the party under Abdurrahman.