Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention | Health Plus

Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention | Health Plus

Colorectal cancer - Risk factors and prevention

Why is colorectal screening important?

Colorectal cancer, the most common cancer in Singapore, is also one of the most preventable. Yet, not enough people are going for screening to detect it early at the precancerous stage.

What causes colorectal cancer?

The exact cause of colorectal cancer is unknown, but there are many factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer, such as age, smoking, lack of exercise, stress, family history, and diseases like diabetes and ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.

Can colorectal cancer be prevented?

Colorectal cancer begins with small and benign growths known as polyps. A polyp grows slowly from a few millimetres to about 2cm in diameter before transforming into colorectal cancer. The only proven way to prevent colorectal cancer is to detect these polyps early and remove them before it is too late.

How often should I go for a colonoscopy?

Colonoscopy is a simple procedure that allows doctors to visually examine the bowel lining, to detect precancerous polyps and remove them. Doctors recommend screening colonoscopy for people above the age of 50. Early colorectal cancer may not present with symptoms, and is thus difficult to detect without regular screening.

That is why anyone with colorectal cancer symptoms like rectal bleeding and change in bowel habits should seek medical advice, regardless of age. Those with a family history of colorectal cancer should start colonoscopy earlier and do it more frequently. If the screening result is normal, you should have one every 5 – 10 years afterward. But, if you have had precancerous polyps in your colon, you need regular colonoscopies and the frequency of which is determined by the number and size of the polyps. Your doctor should be able to advise you on this.

Early detection of colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is preventable since it starts as polyps and take years to become cancerous, if at all. If it is found early, the 5-year survival rate is 90%. Colonoscopy is a safe procedure with a low incidence of complications and is recommended to be done once every 10 years, starting from the age of 50. With recent advancements in colonoscopy, even polyps that are larger than 2cm in diameter can be removed safely via colonoscopy.

Many lives can be saved by understanding colorectal cancer risks, increasing screening rates, and making lifestyle changes. Consult your doctor to assess your suitability for a colonoscopy screening if you experience symptoms like persistent abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, increasing constipation, unexplained weight loss, and a sudden change in bowel habit.

The only proven way of preventing colorectal cancer is early detection and removal of colon polyps before it become cancerous.

 

Infographic reviewed by Dr Ng Kheng Hong, general and colorectal surgeon at Gleneagles Hospital

Reference

Colorectal Cancer: 9 Things That Raise Your Risk. Retrieved on 5 October 2018 from https://www.webmd.com/colorectal-cancer/guide/risk-factors-colorectal-cancer

Khalik, S. (2016). Colorectal cancer numbers far too high, say experts. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/colorectal-cancer-numbers-far-too-high-say-experts

Simon, S. (2018). Signs and Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/signs-and-symptoms-of-colon-cancer.html

Singapore Cancer Registry Annual Registry Report 2015. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://www.nrdo.gov.sg/docs/librariesprovider3/Publications-Cancer/cancer-registry-annual-report-2015_web.pdf?sfvrsn=10

Mendes, E. (2014). Diabetes and Colon Cancer: An Emerging Link. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/diabetes-and-colon-cancer-an-emerging-link.html

Bowel Cancer. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/bowel-cancer/

Colonoscopy: Ask the Expert _ Everything You Want to Know but Are Afraid To Ask. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/transcripts/1203_colonoscopy-ask-the-expert-everything-you-want-to-know-but-are-afraid-to-ask

Colonoscopy. Retrieved on 13 October 2018 from https://www.webmd.com/colorectal-cancer/colonoscopy-what-you-need-to-know#1

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