MANCHESTER, England - Record spending by Premier League clubs signalled a desire to keep up the English top flight's self-proclaimed reputation as the best in the world, along with a message that homegrown talent was perhaps not.
With Andy Carroll's move to West Ham for US$23 million (S$29.39 million) the biggest deal involving an Englishman in the latest transfer window, and a trend for the top clubs to sell off rather than buy local talent, confidence in the country's players seems low.
Premier League clubs had spent 630 million pounds (US$980.53 million) by Monday's transfer deadline, smashing the previous record of 500 million pounds set in 2008 according to business services group Deloitte.
The standout deals were mainly for Spaniards, South Americans and Germans with Mesut Ozil, Fernandinho, Willian and Roberto Soldado joining Arsenal, Manchester City, Chelsea and Tottenham Hotspur respectively.
England's Manchester United striker Wayne Rooney could have been a big-name move with Chelsea chasing him for much of the close season before cooling off last week and Everton defender Leighton Baines was a United target but neither deal came off.
There was a loan deal for England midfielder Gareth Barry from Manchester City to Everton, defender Steven Caulker - who has one cap - moved to Cardiff City from Tottenham for 10 million but other activity was even lower key.
Midfielder Stewart Downing joined West Ham from Liverpool, Tom Huddlestone swapped Spurs for Hull City and midfielder Jonjo Shelvey went to Swansea from Liverpool, all for single-figure millions apiece.
The trio of newly promoted clubs, Crystal Palace, Hull City and Cardiff City, were the most active in acquiring English players, mopping up what they could from the bigger clubs for small fees or free.
England manager Roy Hodgson had last week urged clubs to do their transfer business before his squad assembled to prepare for this month's World Cup qualifiers rather than having players make mad dashes across the country to sign late deals.
"We will co-operate with the clubs, of course, but we will be asking them to co-operate with us as well because if it is at all possible to get your business done before 12 p.m. on September 1, we would be very grateful," he said.