Birthday greetings for former prime minister Lee Kuan Yew began streaming in from across the globe on Sunday, in honour of his 90th birthday on Monday.
A message from the United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II sent "warmest congratulations" to Mr Lee from both herself and her husband, Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh.
"Yours has been a most eventful life, inextricably interwoven with the history and development of your nation," the queen said in a message conveyed through British High Commissioner Antony Phillipson.
"It is notable that this year also marks the 50th anniversary of Singapore's independence from the UK and I am delighted that the links between our countries remain so strong."
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement: "Her Majesty's message is a reflection of the warm ties between the two leaders and the deep friendship between Singapore and the United Kingdom, which is underpinned by longstanding historical links and robust bilateral cooperation across many sectors."
From continental Europe, German Chancellor Angela Merkel also sent her congratulations, lauding Mr Lee for his contributions to the nation.
"For over 50 years you have been a decisive figure helping to shape Singapore's destiny and leading your country to peace and prosperity. It is in no small measure thanks to your prudent policymaking that the regional association ASEAN has become a force for reconciliation and stability in Asia. You can look back on your achievements with pride," Dr Merkel said.
She also recalled the "stimulating conversation" she had with him during a meeting in 2011 when she visited Singapore. "I have fond memories of our meeting," she wrote.
"Singapore will remain a key partner for Germany in Asia. I wish you all the very best for the future, in particular good health and well-being."
In June 2011, Dr Merkel visited Singapore as part of a two-city Asian trip and paid Mr Lee a courtesy call, on top of having a closeddoor meeting with Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.
Former Chinese vice-premier Li Lanqing also sent Mr Lee a birthday message, expressing his "deep respect" for Mr Lee's "outstanding contributions to the independence and prosperity of Singapore, and to the friendship and cooperation of China and Singapore". Mr Li wished the former prime minister "good health, long life and happiness".
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