BERLIN - German Chancellor Angela Merkel, a pastor's daughter who grew up under communism, rose to become the world's most powerful woman, governing Europe's biggest economy and setting the political tone on the continent.
Dubbed Mutti, or Mummy, at home for her reassuring and no-nonsense style, the trained scientist is hugely popular for safely steering Germany through global financial turmoil but reviled in crisis-hit countries for championing the bitter medicine of reform and fiscal austerity.
Germany's first female chancellor scored her biggest triumph in September 22 elections when her star power swept her conservatives to a third term - a feat previously achieved only by fellow conservatives Konrad Adenauer and Helmut Kohl, the father of national unity.
On Tuesday she was voted back in by parliament, where she commands a large majority, having forged a 'grand coalition' government with her defeated rivals the Social Democrats.
In this year's campaign, her Christian Democrats erected a giant billboard in Berlin with a picture of Merkel's hands held in her trademark diamond-shape gesture. Quite simply, the mighty Merkel had become the message.
After eight years at the helm, and three as the go-to leader in the eurozone crisis, Merkel was rewarded by voters for navigating the country through turmoil and leaving it stronger than before.
But abroad, angry protesters in Athens, Lisbon and Madrid have blamed her for budget cuts they said were choking off desperately needed growth, some brandishing caricatures of Merkel in Nazi garb.
"I am determined to see Europe emerge stronger from the crisis," she intones regularly. "Germany can only be strong with a strong Europe."
Critics have charged that the ever-reserved Merkel has perfected the art of saying little and avoiding both offence and commitment, while lulling the prosperous country into a false sense of security. "Merkel perfectly embodies the sensibilities of the Germans in the early 21st century," wrote Josef Joffe, publisher of influential weekly Die Zeit.
"You don't have to expect any threatening new tacks from her, no tough decisions for or against. She is perfectly predictable in her flexibility, and the risk-averse electorate loves it. Merkel is us, and we are Merkel."
Her late biographer Gerd Langguth found a "sphinx-like quality" in her, allowing Merkel to quietly triumph in the most unlikely circumstances.
Merkel has dispensed with rivals in her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) despite being a misfit in a party of mainly Roman Catholic family men from Germany's wealthy southwest. A twice-married childless Protestant raised in communist East Germany, she has become the unchallenged conservative leader of her generation.